The OHSAA has been in place since 1907 to assist member schools in conducting tournaments and setting the basic eligibility requirements for high school and middle school students who participate in interscholastic athletics. The Association has 820 member high schools and nearly 800 member junior high and middle schools serving approximately 350,000 student-athletes. These statistics make Ohio in the top 3 or 4 nationally in terms of number of schools served and number of student-athletes participating (typically behind California and Texas). There are 13 boys and 13 girls sports sanctioned annually with a state championship each academic year (Fall: Football, Cross Country, Golf, Girls Volleyball, Girls Tennis, Soccer and Field Hockey; Winter: Basketball, Bowling, Girls Gymnastics, Ice Hockey, Swimming & Diving and Wrestling; Spring: Baseball, Softball, Boys Lacrosse, Girls Lacrosse, Track & Field and Boys Tennis). The Association provides member benefits to schools, such as information on healthy lifestyles and safe participation requirements, scholarships for student athletes and insurance coverage in the event of catastrophic injury or death.
The OHSAA also is the organization which administers the officiating permit process for nearly 15,000 registered sports officials for high school and middle school competition in Ohio. These sports officials adhere to standards of conduct and receive continuing education and training through a network of officials associations around the state.